The book provides an extensive discussion of interstate compacts using water-related compacts as examples. Little attention is paid to creation of these compacts and their influence on policy outcomes. The book provides a meticulous and copious discussion of interstate compacts and subsequent legal justification.
A lack of discussion of water policy related to impact of the compacts gives a reader the sense that the book does not acknowledge the forest for the trees. For example, Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
Student Project: Interstate Water Compacts: Secondary Sources
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. The highest rates of population growth to are projected to occur in areas such as the Southwest that are at risk for reductions in water supplies due to climate change. Damage to the city water system in Asheville, North Carolina, due to heavy rain in In older cities, some buried water mains are over years old and breaks of these lines are a significant problem.
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Sewer overflows resulting in the discharge of untreated wastewater also occur frequently. Heavier downpours will exacerbate existing problems in many cities, especially where stormwater catchments and sewers are combined. Drinking water and sewer infrastructure is very expensive to install and maintain. The red zones are where the conflicts are most likely to occur. This analysis does not factor in the effects of climate change, which is expected to exacerbate many of these already-identified issues.
Existing water disputes across the country Many locations in the United States are already undergoing water stress. The Great Lakes states are establishing an interstate compact to protect against reductions in lake levels and potential water exports. Georgia, Alabama, and Florida are in a dispute over water for drinking, recreation, farming, environmental purposes, and hydropower in the Apalachicola—Chattahoochee—Flint River system. The State Water Project in California is facing a variety of problems in the Sacramento Delta, including endangered species, saltwater intrusion, and potential loss of islands due to flood- or earthquake-caused levee failures.
Changing water demands Water demands are expected to change with increased temperatures. Evaporation is projected to increase over most of the United States as temperatures rise. Higher temperatures and longer dry periods are expected to lead to increased water demand for irrigation. This may be partially offset by more efficient use of water by plants due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Higher temperatures are projected to increase cooling water withdrawals by electrical generating stations. In addition, greater cooling requirements in summer will increase electricity use, which in turn will require more cooling water for power plants. Industrial and municipal demands are expected to increase slightly. Long-Term Aridity Changes in the West The black line shows the percentage of the area affected by drought Palmer Drought Severity Index less than —1 in the West over the past 1, years.
The red line indicates the average drought area in the years to The blue horizontal line in the yellow box indicates the average during the period from to , illustrating that the most recent period, during which population and water infrastructure grew rapidly in the West, was wetter than the long-term average thin horizontal black line. Image Reference: Cook et al. Water planning and management have been based on historical fluctuations in records of stream flows, lake levels, precipitation, temperature, and water demands.
All aspects of water management including reservoir sizing, reservoir flood operations, maximum urban stormwater runoff amounts, and projected water demands have been based on these records. Water managers have proven adept at balancing supplies and demand through the significant climate variability of the past century. Past assumptions derived from the historical record about supply and demand will need to be revisited for existing and proposed water projects. Drought studies that consider the past 1, years indicate that in the West, the last century was significantly wetter than most other centuries.
The causes of these events are only partially known; if they were to reoccur, they would clearly stress water management, even in the absence of climate change see figure above.
Mission : Clean Water
The intersection of substantial changes in the water cycle with multiple stresses such as population growth and competition for water supplies means that water planning will be doubly challenging. The ability to modify operational rules and water allocations is likely to be critical for the protection of infrastructure, for public safety, to ensure reliability of water delivery, and to protect the environment.
There are, however, many institutional and legal barriers to such changes in both the short and long term. Total U. However, over the last 30 years, per capita water use has decreased significantly due, for example, to more efficient technologies such as drip irrigation and it is anticipated that per capita use will continue to decrease, thus easing stress.
In partnership with Columbia University, DEP is evaluating climate change projections, impacts, indicators, and adaptation and mitigation strategies. For example, DEP is examining the feasibility of relocating critical control systems to higher floors in low-lying buildings or to higher ground, building flood walls, and modifying design criteria to reflect changing hydrologic processes. Important near-term goals of the overall effort include updating the existing year flood elevations using climate model projections and identifying additional monitoring stations needed to track changes.
In the immediate future, DEP will evaluate flood protection measures for three existing water pollution control plants that are scheduled for renovation. Matching photographs taken 18 months apart during the most serious period of recent drought show a significant decrease in Lake Powell. Reservoirs in the system, including the giant lakes Mead and Powell, were nearly full in , with almost four times the annual flow of the river stored.
By , the system had lost approximately half of that storage after enduring the worst drought in years of record keeping. In , the lakes were nearly full, but by , the lakes had lost nearly half of their storage water after the worst drought in years. Numerous studies over the last 30 years have indicated that the river is likely at least two-thirds chance of occurring to experience reductions in runoff due to climate change.
In addition, diversions from the river to meet the needs of cities and agriculture are approaching its average flow. Under current conditions, even without climate change, large year-to-year fluctuations in reservoir storage are possible.
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Efforts are underway to address these challenges. Water cycle Water and energy are tightly interconnected; water systems use large amounts of energy, and energy systems use large amounts of water.
Both are expected to be under increasing pressure in the future and both will be affected by a changing climate. In the energy sector, water is used directly for hydropower, and cooling water is critical for nearly all other forms of electrical power generation. Withdrawals of freshwater used to cool power plants that use heat to generate electricity are very large, nearly equaling the water withdrawn for irrigation.
Water consumption by power plants is about 20 percent of all non-agricultural uses, or half that of all domestic use. In the water sector, two very unusual attributes of water, significant weight due to its relatively high density, and high heat capacity, make water use energy intensive.
Large amounts of energy are needed for pumping, heating, and treating drinking water and wastewater. In California, 30 percent of all non-power plant natural gas is used for water-related activities. Surface water often requires more treatment than groundwater. Desalination requires large amounts of energy to produce freshwater. Treated wastewater and recycled water used primarily for agriculture and industry require energy for treatment, but little energy for supply and conveyance.
One of the four members so appointed shall be a resident real property owner within and represent the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area including adjacent agricultural area and be fully qualified by knowledge and experience in connection with the water requirements and supply for such area; the other three members so appointed shall be representative of the common interest and goals of all water users of the area and each shall have broad practical experience in water management, and one shall be a resident real property owner within and represent the Walker River Basin in Nevada, another shall be a resident real property owner within and represent the Carson River Basin in Nevada upstream from Lahontan Reservoir, and the third shall be a resident real property owner within and represent the area within the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District in Nevada.
The term of office of the four members of the commission appointed by each Governor shall be four 4 years. The Governor of each state, upon appointment of the first members of the commission, shall designate one member of the commission to serve for a period of one year, one member to serve for a period of two years, one member to serve for a period of three years, and one member to serve for a period of four years.
Thereafter, members shall be appointed for the regular term of four years as the terms expire. Interim vacancy, for whatever cause, in the office of any member of the commission shall be filled for the unexpired term in the same manner as hereinabove provided for regular appointment. The appointed members of the California-Nevada Compact Commission shall be designated within ninety 90 days after the effective date of the compact. Within thirty 30 days after such members have been appointed and the federal representative designated, the commission shall meet and organize.
The salaries and the personal expenses of each member of the commission shall be paid by the government he represents.